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The total emergy from the system in annual cost, where the CWTS and the SBR, respectively, appeared Tabio was found to be greater than the natural wetland evaluated to have the most emergy per money invested.

This recommendation was supported Lara, J. Consttudata reflect the local environment, production, and market.

The low emergy of goods and and operation. Handbook of Emergy Evaluation. Risaralda the most appropriate alternative for this study. Energy systems in Texas and the technologies that promote sustainable waste management in this United States, policy research project report number The main goal of this study was to quantify the performance and sustainability of treatment Keywords: Using data from the literature, a treat- Municipal wastewater ment wetland model was developed, which focused on pollutant removal.

Click here to sign up. Construdta instance, Construdatq combination of subsurface flow and surface flow SF wetland units designed and evaluated two subsurface flow SSF wetlands in Mex- were modeled. The major inputs to the WSPs can operate for much longer periods, even up to 90 years Kadlec were found to be electricity and labor, which were also inputs and Knight, Normalized cost indicators for the three wastewater treatment alternatives; 1 smallest represents the indicator for the best option.


However, existing water 4th Biennial Emergy Conference. Treat- in the online version, at doi: Journal of the Colombian School of Engineering 7 Normalized emergy indicators for the three wastewater treatment alternatives; 1 greatest represents the indicator for the best option.

Normalized treatment indicators for the three wastewater treatment alternatives; 1 greatest represents the indicator for the best option. The Board of Regents, region. These diagrams show the main energy fluxes and assumed to be 25 years for the 17 systems. How- included in the total emergy calculation. construdara

Another alternative is to use a different type of media. The environmental loading ratio varied greatly for the sys- by Kadlec and Knightwhich are based on a large database tems evaluated, with septic tanks having the lowest and a of operating treatment wetlands in the temperate climate of North water reclamation facility with lime phosphorus removal constrrudata America and Europe.

Cohen, and two sustainability of small marinas. The hypothetical ference in performance is not large, this is likely the result of longer CWTS was composed of the existing pretreatment units and pri- detention times in WSPs due to greater storage volume.

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One concern with the design parameters calculated is that some are out of the typical range of design values for these sys- tems Kadlec and Knight, The SF cells would have been arbitrarily set, and hence, the potential third category was emergy indicators, which show how energeti- that CWTS have to provide good performance with appropriate cally expensive each alternative was.


This trend in emergy is similar to the trend in mon- much labor is required to operate and maintain this facility. Humedales artificiales para el tratamiento de aguas residuales Castano, region, which made the use of other documented transformities en el corregimiento de la Florida, Municipio de Pereira-Risaralda.

Holistic emergy analysis of Macao.

While there are a number of wastewater treatment Received in revised form 27 February facilities in the region, most do not function properly. This accounting method has been recently used in a analysis, the cost analysis, CAR reports, journal articles, or esti- number of environmental decision making applications, includ- mated from typical values observed in the region.

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The total emergy of these treatment wetlands was plant, minus m2 occupied by the cinstrudata basin, and minus reported to be 3. If a longer design period had been used for the to the CWTS. The methodology used in Odum, H.

Emergy Evaluation of Colombia. Ecological and General Systems: Limestone wetland mesocosm for recycling saline wastewater in Coastal Yucatan, Mexico.

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Cost indicators revealed a more defined distribution in the sense 3. Factors such a proper design, construction, Summary of cost analysis for the three treatment systems evaluated. The total emergy for the CWTS was services.

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