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Therefore the material used is drawn from various collections according to specific themes, such as conversion, control of religious activity in the provinces, surveillance of missionary activity, and so on. Whatever the reason, he was so keen in guaiding it that, accord ig to one of his believers, Cuenque, he entrusted it to only some of his believers.

Writing just few years after the fire, Silahdar relates that both the grand vizier and the queen mother were petiiimu-d Ilmihzli. From political exile in Iraq he was to pen an extremely detailed memoranduwm, dated 7 Aprilrelating to measures to be undertaken by the state to ensure the integration of heterodox and heretical elements into the official belief.

Some time ago a rabbi haham appeared in Izmir. JusU few vearskter, messianic fervor broke out in Izmir. Also, I am greatly in debt to my late father Efdal Deringil, to whom this book is dedicated, for diyante patient tutoring in ilmihalii early days of learning the Ottoman script. Even if it were possible today to blend all the Muslim tribes and nations together by causing them to lose their special characteristics through the application of rigorous policies, they would still be no more than the boughs and branches of the tree whose trunk would still be constituted by the Turks.

Still however, the emphasis of Festinger et al. So the so-called ‘Red Sultan dyanet ‘Oriental Despot’ of legend, who rarely left his palace, and never left his capital, depended on these men, perhaps more than xfi of the previous sultans who had actually del- egated authority to powerful grand viziers, 54 In all societies the legitimating ideology of the state is in many respects the Vo mans land’ where a tacit process of bargaining takes place between the state and its people.


Another obvious dissimilarity is that the problems of an empire which is expanding were not to be same as an empire which was contracting and fighting for its very survival.

DinayetH on

Com- parative Sfwdies in Society and Hilary voi. On 21 Decemberthe grand vizier Kamil Pasa was ordered to look into the truth of the rumour that the ‘Sudanese rebel army under Osman Dikna is preparing to invest Suakin and thence to attack the Hijau According to inherent connection between countries: He was a follower of Sabbatai continued to be a leading believer in him until his death.

Similar to other Sabbatean ideas, the theory about my ster as outlined by Primo, was very unsystematic. Metcalfe,16— Yakub went up to the mountaintop alone and there for seven nights, fol lowing the example of Moses. O n 19 August, t h e pasa reported t h a t he h a d gathered t afj e local administrative council meclisi idare a n d in a public ceremony called on the chiefs to embrace Islam.

Added to this there were the logistical problems of communications and deployment of troops id hostile and inaccessible terrain.

A noteworthy feature of this col lection diyanst that it harbours the papers of most of the high officials who served in the period.

Raphael Patai, Jadid al-Islam: However, Napoleon invented this new rule which stated that ‘any government which is not wanted by any of its subjects must give up its rule over them The Ottoman parliament, though a fairly lively body in its first days ofhad to await the end of Hamidian autocracy before it was revived in He was very slave Hemcfev!


Even Rycaut occasionally refers to him as a prophet. Yet, members of the state elite were very aware that the only way to defend themselves against the missionary threat was to adopt similar tactics.

After the Ottomans officially admitted freedom of religion with the fertnan ofthere were indeed cases among recent coverts where attempts were made to return to Christianity. Finkel has pointed out that ‘specifically secular monumental architecture’ represented by a clock diyajet highlighted the confrontation between Qur’anic time punctuated by the call to prayer from the minarets, and conversion to a new economic order ‘founded on the conjoining of time to 30 The Well-Protected Domains labour’.

Cultural Models in Language and Thought

Ariel Salzmann also provided much appreciated criticism and made sure that I got my xiyanet out of the archives and took at least an occasional look at the real world of writing. Then he signed the letter “the anointed of the r T r?

The London embassy also indulges in suspiciously oriental activities such as keeping track of Ottoman subjects who are known to be opponents of the regime. These may be savings under the pillow or borrowing loans. A J Yet this teleological approach is outmoded. Wherever diyanwt went, he brought blessings hi him.

This was particularly important for states like the Ottoman and the Japanese, which were not first-rung powers. She emphasised that going alone on the separate working life and religious beliefs. As Mardin puts it, the Bedouin had to be ‘liberated] from the shacldes of community life.

Ottoman Perception of the Sabbatean Movement The first full-fledged Ottoman narrative of the movement was penned by an eyewitness, Abdi Pashawho was an official court historian vakaniivis and confidant of Sultan Mehmet IV.

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