The Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) is a main component of the GPRS network. The GGSN is responsible for the interworking between the GPRS. Single IP Cisco GGSN Usage Notes and Prerequisites Configuring Support for GGSN-Initiated Update PDP Context Requests Gprs tutorial. by packet paging to notify the GPRS 17 The GPRS access modes specify whether or not the GGSN requests user authentication.

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Recall from Chapter 5 that the VPN client-based network access requires public routable IP addresses to be assigned—unless nonstandard-compliant IKE implementations are adopted. Increasing efficiency and reliability will reduce the opex costs. Because routing areas are smaller than location areas, less radio resources are used While broadcasting a page message.

The service provider may provide a service signup Web page for this purpose. Availability of the MVPN service when roaming and associated roaming fees. If this option is not given then the net option is used as a substitute.

On the other hand, this access mode is most suitable for services that require minimum interaction between the user and the terminal in order to set up connectivity.

The main tutoeial is the addition of the PCU described above. When a user is roaming using a home GGSN, accounting information at the GGSN is critical to record the usage data in the home network independently of the visited network. These costs are for general maintenance and other operational costs that may be incurred.

Mobile Virtual Network Operator.

GPRS Architecture

Because of these deficiencies and others described in Chapters 4 and 5, it appears clear that the end-to-end, VPN client-based solutions often may not be optimal in cellular environment, both from an operator and from a wireless subscriber perspective. Static IP addresses are also allowed, and in fact, the use of static IP addresses is necessary for network-initiated PDP context activation.

Along with the packet data transport the GSM network accommodates multiple users to share the same air interface resources concurrently. Service level agreements SLAstutoriql a UMTS Mobile VPN service provider defines with a customer, include business arrangements and financial and legal clauses that are not relevant to technology and hence beyond the scope of this book. A variety of MS can exist, including a high-speed version of current phones to support high-speed data access, a new PDA device with an embedded GSM phone, and PC cards for laptop computers.


In this way network operators could evolve their networks through GPRS and possibly EDGE to the full 3G networks without having to replace and install more new equipment than was absolutely necessary. The different service policies may, for instance, allow the GGSN to route user packets to different networks depending on the domain component of the username, thus tjtorial a subscriber to select a specific network and the service it offers based on this value.

For example, RADIUS is used when the customer network requires collection of accounting data for trend analysis and usage profiling, and possibly of charging for network access itself in a manner independent of the billing performed by the wireless service provider.

A simplified view of the GPRS network architecture can be seen in the diagram below. GPRS attempts to reuse the existing GSM network elements as much as possible, but to effectively build a packet-based mobile cellular network, some new network elements, interfaces, and protocols for handling packet traffic are required. The PCU itself may be a separate physical entity, or more often these days it is incorporated into the tutofial station controller, BSC, thereby saving additional hardware costs.

It can be as simple as a round robin, or “pick the first in the list and scan through the list instead of retrying the same IP address when no response from the GGSN is heard back.

GPRS PDP Context

For instance, when the user is authenticated, the AAA tutofial can return a name of a service to be provided to the user as described in the previous section, “IP with Protocol Configuration Options” or possibly the information necessary to tunnel PPP frames to a LNS. However, RADIUS accounting is also used to account for session duration and possibly to interface with an accounting infrastructure operated by a partner network. BS11 are not supported. This was believed to tutoiral the best option because IREG members assumed that coordinating the use of a private address space between operators would be unpractical.

GPRS – Architecture

Even though entering the PIN number at MS startup provides user-level identification, normally users want to skip this phase and configure the MS to automatically remember and use the PIN, thus defeating the purpose of the user-level authentication built into the system. After this we are saving current changes to configuration file using command write to make this policy persistent.

  LEI 11719 PDF

Whether manual configuration or PKI infrastructure is used for authentication keys distribution. The greatest limitation of this access mode is in its trust model, which implies the external network to fully rely on the wireless network to provide user authentication. The availability and support commitments agreed in the SLA can be expressed in terms of mean time between failure MTBFmean time to repair MTTRand reachability of technical support or availability of spare parts to replace failed parts.

The GGSN does not query an external server for user authentication, and the user authentication for network access simply relies on the wireless network access authentication.

PPP terminated at the GGSN access method offers the benefits of the PPP protocol-based host configuration and authentication in addition to a very flexible network access paradigm allowing for an array of advanced IP services.

We have decided to consider IPv4 only in this chapter for the sake of simplicity, since it will be mainstream for a few years to come in the provisioning of corporate network access services and advanced IP services. The Selection Mode information element carried in the Create PDP context request gggsn in which way the user session is incoming for a specific access point—that is, according to ghsn criterion the user was allowed to use the APN by the network SGSN.

The GGSN sits between the wireless network and the wireline data networks that interface with it.

We also avoided trying to map this to the standards taxonomy, since again this would have required us to justify decisions taken in the standards, which appears to be quite a risky and difficult task and not necessary for the readers to fully master the matter and properly apply these solutions in the real world. Here is how this problem can be eliminated:

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