CA and EA paved the way for Interlanguage theory (IL hereinafter) in . The term ‘Interlanguage’ was first introduced by Selinker ( &). The Interlanguage theory, that assumes that an active and independent learning mind Selinker believes that the evidence for interlanguage can be found. Inter-language Theory Presented to: Ma’am Mehwish. Selinker’s Five Fossilization Process Steps Over-generalization Transfer of.

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In Bayley, R; Lucas, C.

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Applying Interlanguage to the Language Classroom

The “chunking” method enables a learner to practice speaking their L2 before they correctly break the chunk up in to its component parts. Language learning strategies Communication strategies Code-switching Good language learner studies.

Theories in second language acquisition: This system can be observed when studying the utterances of the learner who attempts to produce meaning in their L2 speech; it is not seen when that same learner performs form-focused tasks, such as oral drills in a classroom. A learner may produce a target-like variant e. For example, in earlier stages of acquisition, a learner will often display systematic constraints on their ability to use the correct tense.

This repeats over and over with the person alternating stairways and floors until the person reaches the top of the building native fluency. Second Language Acquisition Course Code: For example, learners in a stressful situation such as a formal exam may produce fewer target-like forms than they would in a comfortable setting.


There has been a wide range of research investigating interlanguage with various levels, ages, and languages. It can also occur when a learner succeeds in conveying messages with their current L2 knowledge.

In accordance with communication accommodation theorylearners may adapt their speech to either converge with, or diverge from, their interlocutor’s usage. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

In these approaches, a learner’s preference for one linguistic variant over another can depend on social contextual variables such as the status or role of the person the learner is speaking to. The concise encyclopedia of applied linguistics.


Interlanguage can be observed to be variable across eslinker contexts. International Review of Applied Linguistics. It can ” fossilize “, or cease developing, in any of its developmental stages. Interlanguage is claimed to be a language in its own right. Each of these languages has its own grammar and phonology.

Language transfer Linguistic universal Word lists by frequency. One way to think of this is to say that the Empire State Building has two stairways- stairway A on the east side of the building and stairway B on the ijterlanguage side of the building.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. At stairway B, the person goes to the 3 rd floor, enters the hallway, and goes to the opposite end of the building to stairway A.

Competition model Comprehensible output Connectionism Dynamic Systems Theory Generative second-language acquisition Input hypothesis Interaction hypothesis Interface hypothesis Interface position Noticing hypothesis Processability theory Order of acquisition Skill-based theories.


However, in the second stage their systems contained the rule inteerlanguage they should use the bare infinitive form to express present action, without a separate rule for the use of “-ing”.

Some educators tend to disregard the fossilization aspect of interlanguage, but others tend to recognize that some learners do reach states where learning ceases so fossilization is possible.

The more time that learners have to plan, the more target-like their production may be. Social factors may include a change in register or the familiarity of interlocutors. But they will show higher accuracy when the word following the tensed word begins with a nonconsonant e.

For other uses, see Interlanguage disambiguation. An analogy that compares to this is a person from earth moves to live on the moon an English speaking student studying Korean. It is theorized that the same constraints that act on a native UG are also often present in an interlanguage UG. Along with interlanguage comes a seilnker controversial topic called fossilization.

The learner fossilizes the form instead of correcting it.

Selinker noted that in a given situation, the utterances produced by a learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning. These data provide evidence that the learners were initially producing output based on rote memory of individual words containing the present progressive “-ing” morpheme.

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